14.  THE SYNONYMOUS WORDS USED FOR "MAN".

There are four principal Hebrew words rendered "man", and these must be carefully discriminated.  Every occurrence is noted in the margin of The Companion Bible.  They represent him from four different points of view :--

1.  'Adam, denotes his origin, as being made from the "dust of the Adamah" ground (Lat. homo).
2.  'Ish, has regard to sex, a male (Lat. vir).
3.  'Enosh, has regard to his infirmities, as physically mortal, and as to character, incurable.
4.  Geber, has respect to his strength, a mighty man.

I.  'Adam, without the article, denotes man or mankind in general (Gen. 1:26; 2:5; 5:1, followed by plural pronoun). With the article, it denotes the man, Adam, though rendered "man" in Gen. 1:27; 2:7 (twice), 8, 15, 16, 19 (marg.), 22 (twice); 3:12, 22, 24; 5:1; 6:1 (rendered "men"), 2, 3, 4.  After this, the Hebrew 'Adam = man or men, is used of the descendants of Adam.  Hence, Christ is called "the son of Adam", not a son of Enosh.

With the particle ha ('eth) in addition to the article it is very emphatic, and means self, very, this same, this very.  See Gen. 2:7 (first occurrence), 8, 15.

Rendered in the Septuagint anqrwpos (anthropos) 411 times; ajnhvr (aner) eighteen times (fifteen times in Proverbs); brotovs (brotos), mortal (all in Job); once ghgehvs (gegenes), earth-born, Jer. 32:20.

II.  'Ish.  First occurrence in feminine, Gen. 2:23, 'ishah = woman.  Therefore, 'ish = male, or husband; a man, in contrast with a woman.  A great man in contrast with ordinary men (Ps. 49:2, where "low" are called the children of Adam, and the "high" = children of 'ish.  So Ps. 62:9 and Isa. 2:9; 5:15; 31:8).  When God is spoken of as man, it is 'ish (Ex. 15:3.  So Josh. 5:13.  Dan. 9:21; 10:5; 12:6, 7.  Zech. 1:8, &c.).  Also, in such expressions as "man of God", "man of understanding", &c.  In the early chapters of Genesis we have it in chapters 3:33, 34 and 4:1.

Translated in Septuagint 1,083 times by ajnhvr (aner), Latin vir, and only 450 by anqrwpos (anthropos), Latin homo.

It is rendered "husband" sixty-nine times, "person" twelve times, and once or twice each in thirty-nine different ways.

III.  'Enosh.  First occurrence Gen. 6:4, men of name.  Always in a bad sense (Isa. 5:22; 45:14.  Judg. 18:25).  Morally = depraved, and physically = frail, weak.  It is from 'anash, to be sick, wretched, weak, and denotes inability, for strength, physically; and for good, morally (cp. 2Sam. 12:15.  Job 34:6.  Jer. 15:18; 17:9; 30:12, 15.  Mic. 1:9).  Note the contrasts, Isa. 2:11 and 17, "The lofty looks of man ('Adam) shall be humbled, and the haughtiness of men ('Enosh) shall be bowed down" (Cp. Isa. 13:12.  Job 25:6.  Ps. 8:4; 90:3; 144:3.  Job 4:17; 10:5; 7:17.  Dan. 4:16).  Other instructive passages are Isa. 8:1; 66:24.  Ezek. 24:17 (afflicted, or mourners.  Cp. Jer. 17:16, "day of man").  In 1Sam. 4:9 it is probably plural of 'Ish (so probably Gen. 18 and 19, where the indefinite plural must be interpreted by the context, because 'Adam would have denoted human, and 'Ish, males).

It is rendered "man" 518 times, "certain" eleven times, and once or twice each in twenty-four other and different ways.

IV.  Geber.  First occurrence in Gen. 6:4 (*1), mighty men, and denotes man in respect of his physical strength, as 'Enosh does in respect of the depravity of his nature.  It is rendered "man" sixty-seven times, "mighty" twice, "man-child" once, "every one" once.  In the Septuagint rendered fourteen times anqrwpos (anthropos) and the rest by ajnhvr (aner).

For illustrative passages see Ex. 10:11; 12:37.  1Sam. 16:18.  2Sam. 23:1.  Num. 24:3, 15.  1Chron. 26:12; 28:1.  2Chron. 13:3.  Ezra 4:21; 5:4, 10; 6:8.

V.  Methim (plural) = adults as distinguished from children, and males as distinguished from females.  Occurs Gen. 34:30.  Deut. 2:34; 3:6; 4:27; 26:5; 28:62; 33:6.  1Chron. 16:19.  Job 11:3, 11; 19:19; 22:15; 24:12; 31:31.  Ps. 17:14; 26:4; 105:12.  Isa. 3:25; 5:13; 41:14.  Jer. 44:28.

(*1)  In Gen. 6:4, we have three out of the above four words :  "daughters of men" ( = daughters of [the man] 'Adam; "mighty men" = (geber); "men of renown" = Heb. men ('Enosh) of name, i.e. renowned for their moral depravity.

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