51.  MONEY AND COINS, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

I.  MONEY AND COINS.

1.  Dram (Old Testament).
    (1.)  'Adarkon (Heb.).  (1Chron. 29:7.  Ezra 8:27.)
    (2.)  Darkemon (the Persian Daric).  (Ezra 2:69.  Neh. 7:70, 71, 72.)  A gold coin, value 1 28 0d., or $5.28.

2.  Farthing (New Testament).
    (1.)  Kodrantes (Matt. 5:26.  Mark 12:42).  A bronze coin, value 3/4 of a farthing, or 3/8 of a cent.
    (2.)  Assarion (Matt. 10:29.  Luke 12:6).  A bronze coin, value about 3 farthings, or 1.5 cents.

3.  Mite (New Testament).  (Mark 12:42. Luke 12:59; 21:2.)  Lepton, a copper coin, value 3/8 of a farthing, or 3/16 of a cent.

4.  Penny (New Testament), so rendered in fourteen of the sixteen occurrences of Denarion.  A silver coin, value 8 1/2 d., or 17 cents.  Generally plural, is twice rendered "pennyworth."  (Mark 6:37.  John 6:7.)

5.  Piece of Money (Matt. 17:27).  Gr. Stater, a silver coin, value 28. 8d., or 64 cents.

6.  Piece of Silver.  In Old Testament usually = a shekel of silver (see Weights), or may mean uncoined silver in 1Sam. 2:36.  Ps. 68:30.  Josh. 24:32.  Job 42:11.
        In New Testament :--
            (1.)  Argurion (Matt. 26:15; 27:3, 5, 9.  Acts 19:19).
                    Value 28. 8d., or 64 cents.
            (2.)  Drachme (Luke 15:8, 9).  Cp. IV, above.
                    Value 8 1/2 d., or 17 cents.

7.  Silver Piece.  Gr. Argurion (Matt. 27:6).  See VI. 1, above.

8.  Tribute Money.  (New Testament.)  (Matt. 17:24.)
    (1.)  Didrachmon, a double Drachme, see VI. 2, above.
            A silver coin, value 18. 4d., or 32 cents.
    (2.)  Kensos (Matt. 22:19).  Latin census = a poll-tax.

II.  WEIGHTS.

1.  Bekah.  Heb. bek'a (Ex. 38:26) = half a shekel (see V, below).  Weight about 5 drams, Avoirdupois.

2.  Gerah.  Heb. gerath (Ex. 30:13.  Lev. 27:25.  Num. 3:47).  Weight 1/20 of a shekel, or about 1/2 a dram, Avoirdupois.

3.  Maheh.  Heb. maneh (Ezek. 45:12).  See "Pound" (IV, 1), below.

4.  Pound.
    (1.)  Maneh.  Heb. maneh (1Kings 10:17.  Ezra 2:69.  Neh. 7:71, 72).
            Weight = 100 shekels (cp. 1Kings 10:17 with 2Chron. 9:16).
    (2.)  Mna.  Gr. Lat. mina (Luke 19:13, 16, 16, 18, 18, 20, 24, 24, 25).
            Weight about 16 ozs., Avoirdupois.
    (3.)  Litra.  Gr. Lat. libra (John 12:3; 19:39).
            Weight about 12 ozs., Avoirdupois.

5.  Shekel.  Heb. shekel (Ex. 30:13, and frequently).  Weight about 10 drams, Avoirdupois.  There is a shekel of the sanctuary (Ex. 30:13), and the shekel of the king (2Sam. 14:26).  Their precise relative weights unknown.

6.  Talent (Ex. 25:39, and frequently).
    (1.)  Heb. kikkar.  Weight = 3,000 shekels of the sanctuary (Ex. 38:25, 26).
        Talent of the king = 158 lb. Troy.
        Talent of gold = 131 lb. Troy.  About 6,150; $290.85.
        Talent of silver = 117 lb. Troy.
    (2.)  Gr. talantos (in N.T.).  About 114 lb. Avoirdupois.

III.  MEASURES.

1.  DISTANCE.
    (1.)  Day's Journey.  About 30 English miles.
    (2.)  Furlong.  Gr. stadios (Luke 24:13.  John 6:19; 11:18.  Rev. 14:20; 21:16).  About 202 English yards.
    (3.)  Mile.  Gr. mileon (Matt. 5:41).  About 1,616 English yards.
    (4.)  Pace.  Heb. za'ad (2Sam. 6:13).  Rather more than an English yard.
    (5.)  Sabbath day's journey.  About 2,000 English yards.

2.  LENGTH.
    (1.)  Cubit.  Length still in dispute.
        (a) Heb. 'ammah.  Ranging between 21 and 25 inches.
        (b) Heb. yomed (only in Judg. 3:16).
    (2.)  Fathom.  Gr. orguia.  The length of the arms outstretched = about six feet (Acts 27:28).
    (3.)  Reed.  Heb. kaneh (Ezek. 40 and 41).  About 6 cubits, or about 3 1/2 English yards.
    (4.)  Span.  Heb. zereth (Ex. 28:16; 39:9.  1Sam. 17:4.  Isa. 40:12.  Ezek. 43:13).  About half a cubit, or about 10 1/2 inches.

3.  CAPACITY.
    (1.)  Bath.  Heb. bath (1Kings 7:26, 38.  2Chron. 2:10; 4:5.  Ezra 7:22.  Isa. 5:10.  Ezek. 45:10, 11, 14).  About 6 English gallons (liquid).
    (2.)  Bushel.  Gr. modios (Matt. 5:15.  Mark 4:21.  Luke 11:33).  About 1 peck English.
    (3.)  Cab.  Heb kab (2Kings 6:25).  About 1 quart, English dry measure.
    (4.)  Cor.  Heb. kor (Ezek. 45:14).  About 8 bushels.
    (5.)  Ephah.  Heb. 'ephah (Ex. 16:36.  Lev. 5:11; 6:20; 19:36.  Num. 5:15; 28:5.  Judg. 6:19.  Ruth 2:17.  1Sam. 1:24; 17:17.  Isa. 5:10.  Ezek. 45:10, 11, 13, 24; 46:5, 7, 11, 14.  Amos 8:5.  Zech. 5:6, 8).  About 3 pecks, English.
    (6.)  Firkin.  Gr. metretes (John 2:6).  About 9 gallons, English liquid measure.
    (7.)  Half homer.  Heb. letheh (Hos. 3:2).  About 4 bushels.
    (8.)  Hin.  Heb. hin (Ex. 29:40; 30:24.  Lev. 19:36; 23:13.  Num. 15:4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10; 28:5, 7, 14.  Ezek. 4:11; 45:24; 46:5, 7, 11, 14).  About 1 gallon, liquid measure.
    (9.)  Homer.  Heb. chomer (Lev. 27:16.  Num. 11:32.  Isa. 5:10.  Ezek. 45:11, 11, 11, 13, 13, 14, 14.  Hos. 3:2) = 10 ephahs.  Cp. No. 12.  See No. 5, above.  About 8 bushels, English.
    (10.)  Log. Heb. log (Lev. 14:10, 12, 15, 21, 21).  About 2/3 of a pint, liquid measure.
    (11.)  Measure.  The rendering of six Hebrew and four Greek words :
        (1) 'eyphah (Deut. 25:14, 15.  Prov. 20:10.  Micah 6:10), measure.  See No. 5, above.
        (2) Cor.  Heb. kor (1Kings 4:22; 5:11.  2Chron. 2:10; 27:5.  Ezra 7:22).  See No. 4, above.
        (3) Madad.  Used of any hollow measure :  of capacity as well as length = to mete out.
        (4) Mesurah (Lev. 19:35.  1Chron. 23:29.  Ezek. 4:11, 16).  A measure of liquids.
        (5) Se'ah (Gen. 18:6.  1Sam. 25:18.  1Kings 18:32.  2Kings 7:1, 16, 18.  Isa. 27:8).  About 1 peck.
        (6) Shalish (Ps. 80:5.  Isa. 40:12) = a third.  Probably the third part of an ephah.  See No. 5, above.
        (7) Batos (Gr.), same as Heb. bath (Luke 16:6).  About 6 gallons (liquid).
        (8) Koros (Gr.), same as Heb. cor (Luke 16:7).  See No. 4, above.
        (9) Saton (Gr.), same as Heb. se'ah (Matt. 13:33.  Luke 13:21.)  See No. 7, above.
      (10) Choenix (Gr.), (Rev. 6:6).  An Attic dry measure :  the daily allowance of corn for a slave, about 1 quart (dry).
    (12.)  Omer.  Heb. 'omer (Ex. 16:16, 18, 22, 32, 33, 36).  The 1/10 of ephah.  Cp. Ezek. 45:11.
    (13.)  Tenth deal.  Heb. 'isaron (Ex. 16:36; 29:40.  Lev. 14:10, 21; 23:13, 17; 24:5.  Num. 15:4, 6, 9; 28:9, 13, 20, 28; 29:3, 4, 9, 10, 14, 15).  About 1/2 a gallon (dry).

4.  TIME.
    (1.)  Beginning of the Watches (Lam. 2:19).  About 9 p.m.
    (2.)  Cock-crowing (Mark 13:35).  There were two :  one after midnight, and one before dawn.  Both are mentioned in Mark 14:30.  The latter was "THE" cock-crowing.
    (3.)  Cool of the Day (Gen. 3:8).  From about 2 to about 6 p.m.
    (4.)  Day.  Reckoned from sunset to sunset.
    (5.)  Eleventh Hour (Matt. 20:6, 9).  About 5 p.m.
    (6.)  Fourth Watch (Matt. 14:25).  From about 3 a.m. till about 6 a.m.
    (7.)  Heat of the Day (Gen. 18:1).  From about 10 a.m. till 2 p.m.
    (8.)  Middle Watch (Judg. 7:19).  From about midnight till about 3 a.m.
    (9.)  Morning Watch (Ex. 14:24).  From about 3 a.m. till 6 a.m.
    (10.)  Night.  The natural night was from sunset to sunrise.
    (11.)  Ninth hour (Matt. 20:5; 27:45, 46.  Mark 15:33, 34.  Luke 23:44.  Acts 3:1; 10:3, 30).  About 3 p.m.
    (12.)  Second Watch (Luke 12:38).  About 9 to 12 p.m.
    (13.)  Seventh hour (John 4:52).  About 1 p.m.
    (14.)  Sixth hour (Matt. 20:5; 27:45.  Mark 15:33.  Luke 1:26, 36; 23:44.  John 4:6; 19:14.  Acts 10:9).  About 12 midday.
    (15.)  Tenth hour (John 1:39).  About 4 p.m.
    (16.)  Third hour (Matt. 20:3.  Mark 15:25.  Acts 2:15; 23:23).  About 9 a.m.
    (17.)  Third Watch (Luke 12:38).  From about midnight till about 3 a.m.
    (18.)  Watch.  Three hours.
               Old Testament.
                    First Watch, 9 p.m. till midnight.
                    Middle Watch, midnight till 3 a.m.
                    Morning Watch, 3 a.m. till 6 a.m.
               New Testament.
                    First Watch, 6 p.m. to 9 p.m.
                    Second Watch, 9 p.m. to midnight.
                    Third Watch, midnight to 3 a.m.
                    Fourth Watch, 3 a.m. to 6 a.m.

5.  THE JEWISH MONTHS.

N.B. The Civil months are six months later than the Sacred months.
 

SACRED MONTH. NAME OF MONTH. CORRESPONDING
ENGLISH MONTH.
FESTIVAL OF MONTH.
I. Abib, or Nisan. April. 14th day.  The Passover.
16th day.  Firstfruits of Barley Harvest presented.
II. Zif. May. 14th day.  Second Passover, for those who could not keep the first.
III. Sivan. June. 6th day.  Pentecost, or Feast of Weeks.
Firstfruits of the Wheat harvest, and Firstfruits of all the ground.
IV. Thammuz. July.  
V. Ab. August.  
VI. Elul. September.  
VII. Tisri, or Ethanim. October. 1st day.  Feast of Trumpets.
10th day.  Day of Atonement.
15th day.  Feast of Tabernacles.
                Firstfruits of Wine and Oil.
VIII. Bul. November.  
IX. Chisleu. December. 25th day.  Feast of Dedication.
X. Tebeth. January.  
XI. Shebat. February.  
XII. Adar. March. 14th and 15th days.  Feast of Purim.

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