76.  SUPPOSED "LATER" HEBREW WORDS IN ECCLESIASTES.

It is alleged by some modern critics that the Book of Ecclesiastes belongs to a much later date, and was written by a later hand, because certain words are alleged to belong to a later period of Hebrew literature.  Several of these words are noted in the margin, but it may be useful to the student to find them together in one list.

i.  kanas, "gathered", ch. 2:8.  But it occurs in Pss. 33:7; 147:2.  Ezek. 22:21; 39:28.

ii.  medinah, "provinces", ch. 2:8; 5:8.  But it is found in 1Kings 20:14, 15, 17, 19.  Lam. 1:1.  Ezek. 19:8.

iii.  mikreh, "event", or happening, ch. 2:14, 15; 3:19 (that which befalleth), and 9:2, 3.  But it is found in Ruth 2:3; and 1Sam. 6:9; 20:26.

iv.  shalat, "have rule", ch. 2:19.  But the word is found in Ps. 119:133, and a derivative of it even in Gen. 42:6.

v.  hephez, "purpose", ch. 3:1, 17; 5:4, 8; 8:6; 12:1, 10.  But it is found in 1Sam. 15:22, where it is rendered "delight"; also 18:25.  2Sam. 22:20 (the verb).  1Kings 5:8, 9, 10; 9:11; 10:13; where it is rendered "desire".  Even in Job 21:21; 22:3; where it is rendered "pleasure".  In Isa. 53:10 "pleasure" evidently means what Jehovah has been pleased to purpose.  Cp. Isa. 44:28; 46:10.

vi.  soph, "the end", ch. 3:11; 7:2; 12:13 (conclusion).  This is found in 2Chron. 20:16.  Joel 2:20, where it is rendered "hinder part".  The verb is found in Num. 22:30, 30, and repeatedly in Job.

vii.  takaph, "prevail", ch. 4:12; but the only two other places where it occurs are Job 14:20 and 15:24.

viii.  misken, "poor", ch. 4:13; 9:15, 15, 16; but the derivative of it is found in Deut. 8:9.

ix.  nekasim, "wealth", ch. 5:19; 6:2.  This is found as early as Josh. 22:8.  2Chron. 1:11, 12.

x.  'amad, "stand", "appear", ch. 8:3.  This occurs in Gen. 18:8, 22; 19:27; 24:30; 41:1, 17; 43:15.  Ex. 9:10; 14:19; 18:13; 20:18, 21, &c.; Lev. 19:16.

xi.  kasher, "prosper", ch. 10:10 (profitable); 11:6 (prosper).  But it is found in Ps. 68:6, where "with chains" should perhaps be rendered "into prosperity".

xii.  zua', "tremble", ch. 12:3.  But we find it in Hab. 2:7 ("vex"), and its derivative zeva'ah, Isa. 28:19.  Jer. 15:4; 24:9.

These examples will be sufficient to show how slender is the argument on which an objection so grave, and a conclusion so premature, is based.  Some of the references given above may be later, of course, than the true date of Ecclesiastes; nevertheless, they are all much earlier than the alleged date, which is about 200 B.C. or less.

back