9.  THE USAGE OF RUACH, SPIRIT.

The word ruach occurs 389 times in the Hebrew O.T.

In the A.V. it is rendered spirit in 237 passages (and no other word is rendered spirit except neshamah, "breath", in Job 26:4 and Prov. 20:27.  See Ap. 16).  In the remaining 152 places it is translated in 22 different ways, which are to be carefully distinguished.

[In the R.V. ruach is rendered spirit 224 times, and in the remaining 165 passages is rendered in many different ways.]

The meaning of the word is to be deduced only from its usage.  The one root idea running through all the passages is invisible force.  As this force may be exerted in varying forms, and may be manifested in divers ways, so various renderings are necessitated, corresponding thereto.

Ruach, in whatever sense it is used, always represents that which is invisible except by its manifestations.  These are seen both externally to man, as well as internally within man.

As coming from God, it is the invisible origin of life.  All apart from this is death.  It comes from God, and returns to God (Ecc. 3:19, 20).  Hence, ruach is used of :

    I.--GOD, as being invisible.  "The Spirit of Jehovah" is Jehovah Himself, in His manifestation of invisible power.
        2Sam. 23:2.  Ps. 139:7 ( = Thee).  Is. 40:13.

    II.--THE HOLY SPIRIT:  the Third Person of the Trinity.
        2Sam. 23:2.  1Kings 18:12; 22:24.  2Kings 2:16.  2Chron. 18:23.  Neh. 9:20, 30.  Job 26:13; 33:4.  Isa. 40:13; 48:16; 59:19, 21; 61:1; 63:10, 1-4.  Ezek. 3:12, 14 (1st); 8:3; 11:1, 24; 37:1; 43:5.  Mic. 2:7; 3:8.  Zech. 4:6; 6:8; 7:12.  Mal. 2:15.

    III.--INVISIBLE DIVINE POWER MANIFESTING ITSELF
        In creation.  Gen. 1:2.
        In giving life.  Ezek. 37:14.
        In executing judgment--
            "blast."  Ex. 15:8.  Isa. 37:7.
            "breath."  2Sam. 22:16.  2Kings 19:7.  Job 4:9; 15:30.  Ps. 18:15; 33:6.  Isa. 11:4; 30:28.
            "spirit."  Isa. 4:4; 28:6; 34:16; 40:7.

    IV.--INVISIBLE "POWER FROM ON HIGH", MANIFESTING ITSELF AS DIVINE POWER in giving spiritual gifts .  Spoken of as coming upon, clothing, falling on, and being poured out.  Rendered "Spirit", but should be "spirit".
        Gen. 41:38.  Ex. 28:3; 31:3; 35:31.  Num. 11:17, 25, 26, 29; 24:2; 27:8.  Deut. 34:9.  Judg. 3:10; 6:34; 11:29; 13:25; 14:6, 19; 15:14.  1Sam. 10:6, 10; 11:6; 16:13, 14; 19:20, 23.  2Kings 2:9, 15.  1Chron. 12:18; 28:12.  2Chron. 15:1; 20:14; 24:20.  Ps. 51:11, 12; 143:10.  Prov. 1:23.  Isa. 11:2.; 30:1; 32:15; 42:1, 5; 44:3; 59:21; 61:1; 63:11.  Ezek. 2:2; 3:24; 11:5, 19; 36:27; 39:29.  Dan. 4:8, 9 18; 5:11, 12, 14.  Joel 2:28, 29.  Hag. 2:5.  Zech. 12:10.

    V.  THE INVISIBLE PART OF MAN (Psychological).  Given by God at man's formation at birth, and returning to God at his death.
        "Breath."  Gen. 6:17; 7:15, 22.  Job 9:18; 12:10; 17:1.  Ps. 104:29; 135:17; 146:4.  Ecc. 3:19.  Jer. 10:14; 51:17.  Lam. 4:20.  Ezek. 37:5, 6, 8, 9, 10.  Hab. 2:19.  Zech. 12:1.
        "spirit."  Gen. 6:3.  Num. 16:22; 27:16.  Job 27:3; 34:14.  Ps. 31:5; 104:30.  Ecc. 3:21; 8:8; 11:5; 12:7.  Isa. 42:5.
        "Wind."  Ezek. 37:9.

    VI.--THE INVISIBLE CHARACTERISTICS OF MAN; manifesting themselves in states of mind and feeling (by the Fig. Metonymy.  See Ap. 6, p.11).
        "Mind."  Gen. 26:35.  Prov. 29:11.  Ezek. 11:5; 20:32.  Dan. 5:20. Hab. 1:11.
        "Breath."  Job 19:17 ( = manner).
        "Courage."  Josh. 2:11.
        "Anger."  Judg. 8:3.
        "Blast."  Isa. 25:4.
        "Spirit."  Gen. 41:8; 45:27.  Ex. 6:9; 35:21.  Num. 5:14, 30; 14:24.  Josh. 5:1.  Judg. 15:19.  1Sam. 1:15; 30:12.  1Kings 10:5; 21:5.  1Chron. 5:26.  2Chron. 9:4; 21:16; 36:22.  Ezra 1:1, 5.  Job 6:4; 7:11; 10:12; 15:13; 20:3; 21:4; 32:8, 18.  Ps. 32:2; 34:18; 51:10, 11, 12, 17; 76:12; 78:8; 142:3; 143:4, 7.  Prov. 11:13; 14:29; 15:4, 13; 16:2, 18, 19, 32; 17:22, 27; 18:14; 25:28; 29:23.  Ecc. 1:14, 17; 2:11, 17, 26; 4:4, 6, 16; 6:9; 7:8, 9; 10:4.  Isa. 19:3, 14; 26:9; 29:10, 24; 33:11; 38:16; 54:6; 57:15, 16; 61:3; 65:14; 66:2.  Jer. 51:11.  Ezek. 13:3.  Dan. 7:15.  Hos. 4:12; 5:4.  Mic. 2:11 (by Hendiadys (Ap. 6), for a false of lying spirit).

    VII.--INVISIBLE SPIRIT-BEINGS.
        "Angels."  Ps. 104:4.
        "Cherubim."  Ezek 1:12, 20, 21; 10:17.
        Neutral spirit-beings.  Job 4:15.  Isa. 31:3.
        Evil angels.  Judg. 9:23.  1Sam. 16:14, 15, 16, 23; 18:10; 19:9.  1Kings 22:21, 22, 23.  2Chron. 18:20, 21, 22.  Zech. 13:2.

    IX.--THE INVISIBLE MANIFESTATIONS OF THE ATMOSPHERE.
        Temperature.  Gen. 3:8 ("cool").
        Air.
            "Wind" or "winds" in every place where the words "wind" or "winds" occur.
            "Whirlwind."  Ezek. 1:4.
            "Windy."  Ps. 55:8.
            "Spirits."  Zech. 6:5.
            "Air."  Job 41:16.
            "Tempest."  Ps. 11:6.
            "Blast."  Ex. 15:8.  2Kings 19:7.  Isa. 25:4; 37:7.
            "Quarters" (of the four winds).  1Chron. 9:24.
            "Side" or "sides" (of the four winds).  Jer. 52:23.  Ezek. 42:16, 17, 18, 19, 20.

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