98.  THE DIVINE NAMES AND TITLES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.

All names and titles used of one Person represent the different relationships which are sustained by Him.

In the New Testament these are more varied, and not less important than those in the Old Testament; and Ap. 4 should be compared with this Appendix.

The following exhibition of them practically embraces all that is necessary to enable the English reader to understand them, and to grasp something of the perfection with which each is used.

The list of the Names, &c., is given according to the common English rendering of the A.V., as being more easy for reference.  It does not include "Spirit" or "Holy Spirit" :  for which see the separate Appendix, No. 101.

Reference is made, in the notes, to the following divisions and subdivisions :--

I.  GOD.

GOD.  Gr. Theos.  The Greek language, being of human origin, utterly fails (and naturally so) to exhibit the wonderful precision of the Hebrew, inasmuch as the language necessarily reflects, and cannot go beyond the knowledge, or rather the lack of knowledge, of the Divine Being apart from revelation.

    i.  Theos corresponds, generally, with 'Elohim of the O.T., denoting the Creator (see Ap. 4. I); but it corresponds also with El (Ap. 4. IV), and Eloah (Ap. 4. V).  Sometimes it corresponds with Jehovah (who is 'Elohim in Covenant relation), in which case it is printed GOD, as in the Old Testament (both A.V. and R.V.).

        1.  Theos is used in the N.T. of the Father, as the
                revealed God (see John 1:1.  Acts 17:24, &c.)
        2.  It is used of the Son (Matt. 1:23.  John 1:1; 20:28,
                &c.  Rom. 9:5.  2Pet. 1:1.  1John 5:20).  Cp.
                Col. 2:9 and 2Pet. 1:3, 4.
        3.  It is used of the Holy Spirit (Acts 5 v. 3, compared
                with v. 4).
        4.  It is used generically, as in John 10:34.  Acts 12:22.
                2Cor. 4:4.  Phil. 3:19, &c.
        5.  It is used of false gods, as in Acts 7:43, &c.; and
                is printed "god" as in the O.T.

    ii.  Cognate with Theos, there are three other words to be noted :

        1.  Theotes, rendered "Deity", and used of Christ.
                Occurs only in Col. 2:9, and has relation to the
                Godhead personally; while
        2.  Theiotes, rendered "Deity" also, is Deity in the
                abstract.  Occurs only in Rom. 1:20.
        3.  Theios, rendered "Divine", and is used of Christ.
                Occurs only in 2Pet. 1:3, 4; and, with the Article,
                in Acts 17:29, where it is rendered "Godhead".
                Gr. = that which [is] Divine.

II.  I AM.

Used by Christ of Himself, in John 8:58.  See note on Ex. 3:14.

III.  FATHER.

FATHER.  Gr. Pater.  Expresses relationship, the correlative of which is "son".  When used of man it not only denotes parentage, but it sometimes has the wider meaning of "ancestor", "founder", or a "senior" (as in 1John 2:13, 14); also the author or source of anything (John 8:44.  Heb. 12:9);  and expresses a spiritual relationship, as in 1Cor. 4:15.

When used of God it denotes His relationship to His "beloved Son"; and to those ("sons") who have been begotten (not "born", see note on Matt. 1:1) into a new creation.

It implies "sons", not "offspring", as in Acts 17:28, 29.  These were "offspring", and were existing (Gr. huparcho), as such, according to nature, on the ground of creation; not "sons" as being "begotten" into a new creation.

IV.  ALMIGHTY.

ALMIGHTY.  Gr. Pantokrator.  This title belongs to the same God, as Creator, but expresses His relationship to all He has created, by the exercise of His power over "all the works of His hands".  It occurs only in 2Cor. 6:18.  Rev. 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7, 14; 19:6, 15; 21:22.

V.  POTENTATE.

POTENTATE.  Gr. Dunastes = a mighty Prince, or Ruler (cp. Engl. "dynasty").  Used of God, only in 1Tim. 6:15.  Elsewhere used, only twice, of earthly rulers, in Luke 1:52 (generally), and of the Ethiopian eunuch in Acts 8:27.

VI.  LORD.

This is the rendering of two Greek words :  i. Kurios, and ii. Despotes; and one Aramaic, iii. Rabboni.

    i.  Kurios.  Kurios means "owner" (and is so translated in Luke 19:33).  It expresses the authority and lordship arising from and pertaining to ownership.  Hence, while it is used of each Person of the Trinity, it is similarly used of the lower and human relationship of "master".  Cp. Luke 19:33 and see below a. 4.
        So much depends on the presence or absence of the Greek Article, when used of the Divine relationship that these are carefully distinguished in the subdivisions below.
        For obvious reasons the four Gospels have been treated, below, apart from the other books of the N.T.

        a.  In the Four Gospels.

            1.  Used of Jehovah (Ap. 4. II), and printed "LORD" throughout.

                A.  With the Article (ho Kurios).

                    a.  In quotations from the O.T. it occurs four (*1) times :
                            in Matt. 1:22; 2:15; 5:33; 22:44-.
                    b.  In other connexions it occurs fourteen times :  once in
                            Matt. (9:38); once in Mark (5:19); twelve times in
                            Luke (1:6, 9, 15, 25, 28, 46; 2:15, 22, -23, 38; 10:2;
                            20:42-).

                B.  Without the Article (Kurios).

                    a.  In quotations from the O.T. it occurs twenty-nine times :
                            eight times in Matt. (3:3; 4:7, 10; 21:9, 42; 22:37; 23:39
                            27:10); eight times in Mark (1:3; 11:9, 10; 12:11, 29, 29
                            30, 36-); nine times in Luke (3:4; 4:8, 12, 18, 19; 10:27;
                            13:35; 19:38; 20:37); four times in John (1:23; 12:13, 38,
                            38).
                    b.  In other connexions twenty-four times :  six times in Matt.
                            (1:20, 24; 2:13, 19; 11:25; 28:2); once in Mark (13:20);
                            seventeen times in Luke (1:11, 16, 17, 32, 38, 45, 48, 66,
                            68, 76; 2:9, 23-, 24, 26, 39; 5:17; 10:21).
 

           2.  Used by Christ of Himself.

               A.  With the Article (ho Kurios).

                    a.  In direct reference :  six times (Matt. 21:3; 24:42; Mark 11:3;
                            Luke 19:31; John 13:13, 14).
                    b.  In indirect reference :  twice (Matt. 22:-44; Luke 20:-42).

                B.  Without the Article (Kurios).

                    a.  In direct reference :  eleven times (Matt. 7:21, 21, 22, 22; 12:8;
                            25:37, 44; Mark 2:28; Luke 6:5, 46, 46).
                    b.  In indirect reference :  four times (Matt. 22:43, 45; Mark 12:37;
                            Luke 20:44).

           3.  Used of Christ by others.

               A.  By His disciples : fifty-nine times (Matt. 8:21, 25; 13:51; 14:28,
                        30; 16:22; 17:4; 18:21; 26:22; [not one in Mark (*2)] Luke
                        1:43; 5:8; 9:54, 57, 59, 61; 10:17, 40; 11:1; 12:41; 13:23;
                        17:37; 19:8, 34; 22:31, 33, 38, 49; 23:42; 24:34; John 6:68;
                        9:36, 38; 11:3, 12, 21, 27, 32, 34, 39; 13:6, 9, 25, 36, 37;
                        14:5, 8, 22; 20:2, 13, 18, 20, 25, 28; 21:7, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21).

                B.  By others than His disciples.

                    a.  Rendered "Lord" eighteen times :  twelve in Matt. (8:2, 6,
                            8; 9:28; 15:22, 25, 27-; 17:15; 20:30, 31, 38; 28:6); only
                            twice in Mark (*3) (7:28; 9:24); four times in Luke (2:11;
                            5:12; 7:6; 18:41); twice in John (6:34; 8:11).
                    b.  Rendered "Sir" six times :  John 4:11, 15, 19, 49; 5:7; 20:15
                            (Mary, addressing the supposed gardener).
                    c.  By the Holy Spirit frequently in the narratives of the
                            Evangelists.

           4.  Used of others than Christ.

               A.  With the Article (ho Kurios), emphasizing ownership.  Occurs
                        forty-two times :  twenty-one times in Matt. (10:24, 25; 15:-27;
                        18:25, 27, 31, 32, 34; 20:8; 21:40; 24:45, 46, 48, 50; 25:18, 19,
                        21, 23, 23, 26);  twice in Mark (12:9; 13:35); sixteen times in
                        Luke (12:36, 37, -42, 43, 45, 46, 47; 14:21, 23; 16:3, 5, 5, 8;
                        19:33; 20:13, 15); three times in John (13:16; 15:15, 20).

                B.  Without the Article (Kurios).  Generally in courtesy, emphasizing
                        superior relationship.  Occ. nineteen times.  Rendered "Lord"
                        fourteen times (Matt. 18:26; 25:11, 11, 29, 22, 24.  Luke 13:8,
                        25, 25; 14:22; 19:16, 18, 20, 25); "Master" twice (Matt. 6:24.
                        Luke 16:13); "Sir" four times (Matt. 13:27; 21:30; 27:63.  John
                        12:21).

        b.  In the other books of the New Testament.

            1.  Used of Jehovah (Ap. 4. II), and printed "LORD" throughout;
                    as in the O.T.

                A.  With the Article (ho Kurios).

                    a.  In quotations from the O.T.  Occurs ten times (Acts 2:25, 34;
                            4:26; 7:33; 13:47; 15:17.  Rom. 15:11.  1Cor. 10:26, 28.
                            Heb. 8:11).
                    b.  In other connexions :  Acts 2:47.  2Cor. 10:18.  Heb. 8:2; 12:14.
                            James 5:-11.  2Pet. 3:9, 15.  Jude 5.  Rev. 11:15, 21, 22.

                B.  Without the Article (Kurios).

                    a.  In quotations from, or references to, the O.T. :  Acts 2:20, 21;
                            3:22; 7:30, 31, 37, 49.  Rom. 4:8; 9:28, 29; 10:13, 16; 11:3,
                            34; 12:19; 14:11.  1Cor. 1:31; 2:16; 3:20; 14:21.  2Cor. 6:17,
                            18; 10:17.  Heb. 1:10; 7:21; 8:8, 9, 10; 10:16, 30, 30; 12:5, 6;
                            13:6.  1Pet. 1:25; 3:12, 12.
                    b.  In other connexions :  Acts 1:24; 2:39; 5:9, 19; 17:24.  2Cor.
                            3:16.  James 5:4, 10, 11-.  2Pet. 2:9, 11; 3:8, 10.  Jude 9:14.
                            Rev. 4:8; 11:17; 15:3, 4; 16:5, 7; 18:8; 19:1, 6; 22:5, 6.

            2.  Used of Christ.

                A.  With the Article, as in Acts 2:-34.  2Cor. 3:17-, &c.

                B.  Without the Article, as in 1Cor. 8:6, &c.

    ii.  Despotes.  Like Kurios (i, above) it denotes owner; but it includes (when used of God) the exercise of more absolute, unlimited and despotic authority and power in heaven and on earth.  It is derived from deo = to bind, and pous = the foot.  It occurs ten times in the New Testament, and is rendered five times "Lord"; and five times "Master" (see No. XIV. 2, below).

            1.  Used of Jehovah (Ap. 4. II) three times (Luke 2:29.  Acts 4:24.
                    Rev. 6:10).

            2.  Used of Christ, twice (2Pet. 2:1.  Jude 4).

    iii.  Rabboni.  Aramaic for the Heb. Rabbi = my Master, or Teacher.  See Ap. 94. II. 3.  Occurs twice, once translated "Lord" (Mark 10:51); and once transliterated "Rabboni" (John 20:16).

VII.  EMMANUEL.

EMMANUEL.  Heb. 'Immanuel = God (El) with us (Isa. 7:14; 8:8).  Used of Christ, Matt. 1:23, being another proof of His Deity (see No. Vi. i. a. 2. A. a. b.).

VIII.  MESSIAH.

This is the Greek transliteration of the Heb. Mashiah, with the same meaning, Anointed.  Used twice of Christ (John 1:41; 4:25).

IX.  CHRIST.

This is the Greek translation of the Heb. Mashiah, See No. VIII.  Christos has the same meaning, from chrio, to anoint.  Hence, the Noun is used of and for the Messiah, and in the Gospels should always be translated "Messiah", as well as in the Acts, and sometimes in the later books of the New Testament.

X.  JESUS.

Iesous is the same as the Heb. Jehoshua, or the abbreviated form Joshua (cp. Heb. 4:8), and means [the] Salvation of jehovah, or Jehovah [the] Saviour.

The name "Jesus" expresses the relation of Jehovah to Him in Incarnation, by which "He humbled Himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross" (Phil. 2:8); Who, being God, did not deem His glory a thing not to be thus relinquished (see note on "robbery", Phil. 2:6).  The name "Jesus" is the name associated with "the shame" which He endured in order to "save His People from their sins" (Matt. 1:21).  His People therefore never addressed Him as "Jesus", but always as "Master" (No. XIV. v) or "Lord" (VI, i, a, 3).  (John 13:13, 14.  Luke 6:46), and so should all His people to-day; not following the example of demons (Matt. 8:29), or of His enemies, who irreverently called Him "Jesus".

XI.  JESUS CHRIST.

In the combination of these two names, the former is emphatic by its position, the second being subsidiary and explanatory.  In the Gospels it means "Jesus the Messiah".  In the Epistles it means Jesus Who humbled Himself but is now exalted and glorified as Christ.  Care should be taken to note the various readings.

XII.  CHRIST JESUS.

This is the converse of "Jesus Christ" (XI) and denotes the now exalted One, Who once humbled Himself.

XIII.  CHRIST THE LORD.

This is the Heb. Mashiah Jehovah = Jehovah's Anointed, as in 1Sam. 24:6.  Occ. only in Luke 2:11; and with the Article = the Anointed of Jehovah, Luke 2:26.

XIV.  MASTER.

This title is the translation of eight distinct Greek words, which are all carefully distinguished in the notes.

    i.  Kurios (the same as No. VI. i. a. 2, 3, above).  Is used of the Lord in Mark 13:35.  Eph. 6:9, and Col. 4:1.  Used of others (Matt. 6:24.  Luke 16:13).  See Vi. i. a. 4. B., above.

    ii.  Despotes, see No. VI, ii, above.  It occurs ten times, and is rendered five times "Lord" (see VI. ii); and five times "Master", once of the Divine Master (2Tim. 2:21); and four times of human masters.

    iii.  Oikodespotes = master of a house; house-master.  It occurs twelve times, and is used in Parables by the Lord of Himself seven times, and of others thrice :  it is rendered four times "house-holder"; five times "goodman of the house"; and three times "master" (Matt. 10:25.  Luke 13:25; 14:21).  Twice it is used of others than Christ (Mark 14:14.  Luke 21:11).

    iv.  Epistates = Commander.  Occurs five times as addressed to the Lord (Luke 5:5; 8:24, 24, 45; 9:33, 49; 17:13).

    v.  Didaskalos = Teacher, or as we should say "Doctor".  Occurs fifty-eight times, and is twice explained as meaning "Rabbi".  See No. vii, p. 144.

        1.  The Lord was addressed as Didaskalos ( = Teacher),
                rendered "Master" thrity-one times; six times in Matthew
                (8:18; 12:38; 19:16; 22:16, 25, 36); ten times in Mark
                (4:38; 9:17, 38; 10:17, 20, 35; 12:14, 19, 32; 13:1);
                twelve times in Luke (3:12; 7:40; 9:38; 10:25; 11:45;
                12:13; 18:18; 19:39; 20:21, 28, 39; 21:7); three times
                in John (1:39; 8:4; 20:16).

        2.  The Lord spoke of as "Master" by Himself eight times :
                three times in Matthew (10:24, 25; 26:18); once in Mark
                (14:14); thrice in Luke (6:40, 40; 22:11); once in John
                (13:14).

        3.  The Lord spoken of as "Master" by others than Himself six
                times :  twice in Matthew (9:11; 17:24); once in Mark (5:35);
                once in Luke (8:49); twice in John (11:28; 13:13).

        4.  Spoken of others than the Lord twice, and rendered "master"
                in John 3:10.  Jas. 3:1.  In other renderings once "doctor"
                (Luke 2:46), and ten times "teacher", once of the Lord
                (John 3:2), and nine times of human teachers (Acts 13:1.
                Rom. 2:20.  1Cor. 12:28, 29.  Eph. 4:11.  1Tim. 2:7.
                2Tim. 1:11; 4:3.  Heb. 5:12).

    iv.  Kathegetes = A Guide or Leader.  Used of the Lord by Himself three times (Matt. 23:8, 10, 10).

    vii.  Rabbi.  The Hebrew term for "my Teacher", transliterated into Greek.  Twice explained as meaning the same as the Gr. Didaskalos (see XIV. v, p. 143).  Occurs seventeen times, and used as follows :

        1.  The Lord addressed as "Rabbi" five times (John 1:39, 49;
                3:2, 26; 6:25).  Rendered "Master" nine times (Matt.
                26:25, 49.  Mark 9:5; 11:21; 14:45, 46.  John 4:31; 9:2;
                11:8).

        2.  Used of others than the Lord four times (Matt. 23:7, 7, 8.
                John 3:26).

    viii.  Rabboni.  Aramaic for Rabbi (see Ap. 94. III. 38).  Occurs twice, once transliterated (John 20:16); and once translated "Lord" (Mark 10:51).

XV.  THE SON OF GOD.

This title expresses the relation of the Son to the Father (Matt. 1:20.  Luke 1:31, 35); and of all those who are begotten of God (see note on Matt. 1:1.  1John 3:1).

It differs therefore from the relationship expressed by "the Son of man", which relates to "dominion" in the earth (see XVI, below).

As the Son of God, Christ is "the heir of all things" (Heb. 1:2), and is invested with "all power", and is "the Resurrection and the Life" (John 11:25), having power to raise the dead (John 5:25).  As "the Son of man", all judgment is committed to Him (John 5:27) in the earth.  See on No. XVI, below.

XVI.  THE SON OF MAN.

This title, when used of Christ, always has the Article; and the word for man is anthropos (see Ap. 123, I).

When used of a human being, as in Ezekiel, it never has the Article (see notes on Ps. 8:4, and Ezek. 2:1).

To the "first man, Adam" was given dominion over the works of the Creator (Gen. 1:26).  Through the Fall (Gen. 3), this dominion was forfeited, and lost, and is now in abeyance; no one son of Adam having any right to universal dominion.  Hence, all the chaos, "unrest", and conflicts between men and nations, which must continue until He shall come Whose right it is to rule in the earth (Ezek. 21:27).  The great enemy, who wrought all the mischief at the Fall, has tried, from time to time, to exercise this authority by setting up some human head.  He tried Nebuchadnezzar, Alexander the Great, and others, and in later days Napoleon; but he will finally succeed for a brief period with the Antichrist, until "the second man", "the last Adam" (1Cor. 15:45), "the Son of Man", to Whom all dominion in the earth has, in the counsels of God, been given, shall take unto Him His great power and reign.

All this and more is contained in His title as "the Son of man".  Its first occurrences is in Psalm 8, where in verses 1 and 8 His connection with the "earth" is proclaimed; and "dominion" over it is given to Him.  It denotes Him Who is "the heir of all things", in virtue of which all things shall one day be put under His feet.  "But now we see not yet all things put under Him.  But we see Jesus, Who was made a little lower than the angels", humbling Himself unto death, even the death of the Cross (cp. Heb. 2:8, 9).

In support of this, the occurrences and distribution of this title in the N.T. are full of significance and instruction.

    (1)  As to the occurrences.  We find the expression eighty-eight times :  Matt. 8:20; 9:6; 10:23; 11:19; 12:8, 32, 40; 13:37, 41; 16:13, 27, 28; 17:9, 12, 22; 18:11; 19:28; 20:18, 28; 24:27, 30, 30 37, 39, 44; 25:13, 31; 26:2, 24, 24, 45, 64.  Mark 2:10, 28; 8:31, 38; 9:9, 12, 31; 10:33, 45; 13:26; 14:21, 21, 41, 62.  Luke 5:24; 6:5, 22; 7:34; 9:22, 26, 44, 56, 58; 11:30; 12:8, 10, 40; 17:22, 24, 26, 30; 18:8, 31; 19:10; 21:27, 36; 22:22, 48, 69; 24:7.  John 1:51; 3:13, 14; 5:27; 6:27, 53, 62; 8:27; 12:23, 34, 34; 13:31.  Acts 7:56.  Heb. 2:6 (*4).  Rev. 1:13; 14:14.  On John 9:35 see note there.

The first is in Matt. 8:20, where the first thing stated of, and by, the One Who humbled Himself is that in this same earth "the Son of man had not where to lay His head."

The second, in like manner, is connected with the earth, and shows that He was God, as well as Man, having "authority on earth to forgive sins" (Matt. 9:6); and so the order of the occurrences may be carried out.

Note, in this connection, the contrast between the relationship to mankind of the Lord, as "the Son of God", and as "the Son of man" in John 5:25-27.  Cp. Acts 10:40-42; 17:31.

    (2)  As to the distribution of this title :  our of the whole number (88), no less than 84 are in the Four Gospels, which contain the record of His coming for this special purpose; and of His rejection.  They are all used by the Lord of Himself.

After these 84 occurrences, we have one in the Acts (7:56) where Stephen sees Him "standing" as though not yet "set down", and waiting to be "sent" according to the promise of Jehovah by Peter in Acts 3:20 (cp. Heb. 10:13); and two in the Apocalypse (Rev. 1:13 and 14:14), where He comes to eject the usurper, and reign in righteousness over a restored earth.  Heb. 2:6 (*4) is a quotation from Ps. 8, which can only be realized by Him.

This distribution of the title shows us that it has nothing whatever to do with "the Church of God"; and that those who belong to it have no relation to the Lord Jesus as "the Son of man".  They stand related to Him as "the Son of God".

The distribution between the four separate Gospels is equally significant.  In Matthew it occurs 32 times.  Matt. 8:20 is the first occurrence in the New Testament, and it is interesting to contrast it with the last occurrence (Rev. 14:14).  In the first He had "not where to lay His head", but in the last that head has on it "a golden crown", and in His hands is seen "a sharp sickle".  With this He reaps in judgment the harvest of the earth, for the time to reap it will then have come.  This is emphasized by the word "earth" being 6 times repeated in the verses 15, 16, 18, 19.

In Mark it occurs 14 times, which is twice seven; the two of testimony, and the seven of spiritual perfection of Jehovah's Servant.

In Luke it occurs 26 times.

In John it occurs 12 times, the number which stands associated with Divine governmental perfection.  (See Ap. 10.)

Similarly significant are the first and last occurrences in the Four Gospels respectively :  the first being in connection with the humiliation of "the Son of man", and the last with His glorification.  Cp. Matt. 8:20 with 26:64; Mark 2:10 with 14:62; Luke 5:24 with 24:7; and John 3:13, 14 with 13:31.

Thus, while as "the Son of God" He is "the Heir of all things" (Heb. 1:2) as "the Son of man" He is the Heir to that dominion in the earth which was entrusted to the first man, and forfeited by him.

XVII.  THE SON OF ABRAHAM (Matt. 1:1).

Expresses the relation of the Son of man, as being heir to the land given to Abraham (Gen. 15:18-21).

XVIII.  THE SON OF DAVID (Matt. 1:1.  Luke 1:32, &c.).

Expresses His relationship, as being the Heir to David's throne (2Sam. 7:12-16.  Isa. 11:1.  Acts 2:29-32; 13:33-37.  Rev. 5:5; 22:16).

(*1)  These numbers refer to the Received Greek Text.  In some cases there are various readings, but in most of them the difference consists in the omission of the article.  Any important variations are referred to in the notes.

(*2)  Because, in Mark, the presentation of the Lord is as "Jehovah's Servant"; and a servant is not usually addressed as Lord.  See notes on p. 1381.  This is not a peculiarity of Mark, but shows the accuracy and perfection of this presentation by the Holy Spirit.

(*3)  Once by a Gentile, the other being omitted by the Critical texts (though not by the Syr.).

(*4)  The reference in Heb. 2:6 is a quotation from Ps. 8:4, and refers to "the first man", Adam; and only by application to the Lord.

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