Book of Ruth
The Book of
Ruth (a love
story), was always read by the levitical priests at Passover. This book gives
credentials and link to the the Genealogy of King David and Jesus Christ "the
son of David." (Matthew 1:5-16). They would both come through the
daughter-in-law of Naomi (Ruth). The kinsman redeemer better explained in
(Deuteronomy 25:5-10). Ruth, (a Gentile), marries a Hebrew husband, as Esther,
(a Jewess), marries a Gentile husband. Examples that Gentiles, as such, were to
be blessed only through Abraham's seed, according to (Genesis 12:3, 18:18,
22:18, 26:4, Psalm 72:17, Acts 3:25).
Rth 1:1 Now it came to pass in the days when the judges ruled, that there was a famine in the land. And a certain man of Bethlehemjudah went to sojourn in the country of Moab, he, and his wife, and his two sons. Now it came to pass in the days: Denotes impending trouble, followed by happy deliverance. When the judges ruled: In the early days, before the sin of Judges 1, developed the later internal disorders, and outward oppressions. Famine in the land: The period of the judges were some of the most grimmest in Israel's history. Bethlehem: H1035 "beyth lechem" "House of bread." Judah: H3063 "yhudah" "Jehudah." Moab: An incestuous son of Lot. (Genesis 19:30-38).
Rth 1:2 And the name of the man was Elimelech, and the name of his wife Naomi, and the name of his two sons Mahlon and Chilion, Ephrathites of Bethlehemjudah. And they came into the country of Moab, and continued there. Elimelech (My God is King). Naomi (My pleasant one). Mahlon (Sick). Chilion (Pining). Ephrathites: Ephrath was the ancient name of Beth-lehem, where Rachel was buried. (Genesis 35:19, 48:7).
Rth 1:3 And Elimelech Naomi's husband died; and she was left, and her two sons.
Rth 1:4 And they took them wives of the women of Moab; the name of the one was Orpah, and the name of the other Ruth: and they dwelled there about ten years.
Orpah (Hind or Fawn).
Ruth (Beauty or friendship). Note: Canaanitish wives forbidden (Deuteronomy 7:3), but not the Moabitish wives; though a Moabite man might not enter the congregation of the Lord. (Deuteronomy 23:3).
Rth 1:5 And Mahlon and Chilion died also both of them; and the woman was left of her two sons and her husband.
This left Naomi alone without her two sons or husband.
Rth 1:6 Then she arose with her daughters in law, that she might return from the country of Moab: for she had heard in the country of Moab how that the LORD had visited his people in giving them bread.
Naomi heard they were being blessed in Judah by giving them good crops. (This was in 1326, the year before the second jubilee, 1325-1324).
Rth 1:7 Wherefore she went forth out of the place where she was, and her two daughters in law with her; and they went on the way to return unto the land of Judah. Heading home to the land of Judah.
Rth 1:8 And Naomi said unto her two daughters in law, Go, return each to her mother's house: the LORD deal kindly with you, as ye have dealt with the dead, and with me. Go and return home.
Rth 1:9 The LORD grant you that ye may find rest, each of you in the house of her husband. Then she kissed them; and they lifted up their voice, and wept. Naomi is releasing her daughter-in-laws from any obligation to follow her, gave them a kiss, and they wept.
Rth 1:10 And they said unto her, Surely we will return with thee unto thy people. But they loved Naomi and wanted to remain with her. ("Everybody loved Naomi").
Rth 1:11 And Naomi said, Turn again, my daughters: why will ye go with me? are there yet any more sons in my womb, that they may be your husbands? Are there: This alludes to the custom that when a married brother died, without leaving posterity, his brother should take his widow; and the children of such marriages were accounted those of the deceased brother. This address of Naomi to her daughter-in-law is exceedingly tender, persuasive, and affecting. (Naomi was to old to bare children).
Rth 1:12 Turn again, my daughters, go your way; for I am too old to have an husband. If I should say, I have hope, if I should have an husband also to night, and should also bear sons; Naomi was to old to have a husband.
Rth 1:13 Would ye tarry for them till they were grown? would ye stay for them from having husbands? nay, my daughters; for it grieveth me much for your sakes that the hand of the LORD is gone out against me. Would you wait for them (if I could have children), to grow up and refuse to marry someone else? Of course not.
Rth 1:14 And they lifted up their voice, and wept again: and Orpah kissed her mother in law; but Ruth clave unto her. Again they wept together, and Orpah kissed Naomi good-bye. However, Ruth clung tightly to her.
Rth 1:15 And she said, Behold, thy sister in law is gone back unto her people, and unto her gods: return thou after thy sister in law.
Orpah has left and you should do the same. (Notice the lower case gods). The Moabites worshipped strange gods.
Rth 1:16 And Ruth said, Intreat me not to leave thee, or to return from following after thee: for whither thou goest, I will go; and where thou lodgest, I will lodge: thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God: What a pledge to Naomi by Ruth. A more perfect surrender of friendly feelings to a friend was never made. This was a most extraordinary and disinterested attachment.
Rth 1:17 Where thou diest, will I die, and there will I be buried: the LORD do so to me, and more also, if ought but death part thee and me.
This was a seven fold pledge by Ruth to Naomi. (Seven meaning spiritual completeness).
Rth 1:18 When she saw that she was stedfastly minded to go with her, then she left speaking unto her.
Naomi saw that Ruth was determined to go with her and said no more. Steadfastly minded: Strengthened herself. (Acts 2:42, Ephesians 6:10).
Rth 1:19 So they two went until they came to Bethlehem. And it came to pass, when they were come to Bethlehem, that all the city was moved about them, and they said, Is this Naomi?
Naomi is back after around 10 years. When they arrived in Bethlehem, the entire town was excited. From this it would appear that Naomi was not only well known, but also highly respected at Bethlehem. A proof that Elimelech was of high consideration at that place.
Rth 1:20 And she said unto them, Call me not Naomi, call me Mara: for the Almighty hath dealt very bitterly with me. Naomi was addressing the women. The Almighty = Shaddai.
Rth 1:21 I went out full, and the LORD hath brought me home again empty: why then call ye me Naomi, seeing the LORD hath testified against me, and the Almighty hath afflicted me?
I Went away full, but came home empty. "Not so." Naomi brought home one of the mothers. Naomi may have felt a little bitter now, but wait till chapter four. (God loved Naomi).
Rth 1:22 So Naomi returned, and Ruth the Moabitess, her daughter in law, with her, which returned out of the country of Moab: and they came to Bethlehem in the beginning of barley harvest. At the beginning of Spring; for the barley harvest began immediately after the Passover, and that festival was held on the 15th of Nisan, corresponding nearly with our March. (Ruth 2:23).
Rth 2:1 And Naomi had a kinsman of her husband's, a mighty man of wealth, of
the family of Elimelech; and his name was Boaz.
Boaz was a wealthy and very influential man in Bethlehem. He was in the
genealogy of Christ and was a kinsmen to Naomi. (He was a relative of Naomi's
Rth 2:2 And Ruth the Moabitess said unto Naomi, Let me now go to the field,
and glean ears of corn after him in whose sight I shall find grace. And
she said unto her, Go, my daughter.
It was common law that
when you harvest your field, that you left some of the produce behind in the
field for the poor to pick up. (Leviticus 23:22, Deuteronomy 24:19). Ruth is
going to the fields to gather up the stalks of grain. However, this was
dangerous for women to do this at the time.
Rth 2:3 And she went, and came, and gleaned in the field after the reapers:
and her hap was to light on a part of the field belonging unto Boaz, who
was of the kindred of Elimelech.
It just so
happened that she found herself working in the field that belonged to Boaz.
(This was no coincidence, God sent her there).
Rth 2:4 And, behold, Boaz came from Bethlehem, and said unto the reapers, The
LORD be with you. And they answered him, The LORD bless thee.
Boaz was good to the people and the people liked Boaz. (This
tells of a time of peace and prosperity).
Rth 2:5 Then said Boaz unto his servant that was set over the reapers, Whose
damsel is this? Speaking of Ruth. (I'm sure Ruth
was a beautiful young lady that he noticed).
Rth 2:6 And the servant that was set over the reapers answered and said, It
is the Moabitish damsel that came back with Naomi out of the country of
Moab: A young woman from Moab. (I believe he knew who she
Rth 2:7 And she said, I pray you, let me glean and gather after the reapers
among the sheaves: so she came, and hath continued even from the morning until
now, that she tarried a little in the house. It seems that
the reapers were now resting in a tent, erected for that purpose; and that Ruth
had just gone in with them, to take her rest also.
Rth 2:8 Then said Boaz unto Ruth, Hearest thou not, my daughter? Go not to
glean in another field, neither go from hence, but abide here fast by my
here with the rest my maddens.
Rth 2:9 Let thine eyes be on the field that they do reap, and
go thou after them: have I not charged the young men that they shall not touch
thee? and when thou art athirst, go unto the vessels, and drink of that
which the young men have drawn. Boaz was not going to let
anything happen to Ruth because she was kin.
Rth 2:10 Then she fell on her face, and bowed herself to the ground, and said
unto him, Why have I found grace in thine eyes, that thou shouldest take
knowledge of me, seeing I am a stranger? Ruth was
very thankful to Boaz for his kindness.
Rth 2:11 And Boaz answered and said unto her, It hath fully been shewed me,
all that thou hast done unto thy mother in law since the death of thine husband:
and how thou hast left thy father and thy mother, and the land of thy
nativity, and art come unto a people which thou knewest not heretofore.
Boaz checked up on her and knew she was a relative and what good she had done.
Rth 2:12 The LORD recompense thy work, and a full reward be given thee of the
LORD God of Israel, under whose wings thou art come to trust.
He also knew that she accepted the "Living God Yahveh."
Rth 2:13 Then she said, Let me find favour in thy sight, my lord; for that
thou hast comforted me, and for that thou hast spoken friendly unto thine
handmaid, though I be not like unto one of thine handmaidens.
Ruth was a very wise and humble girl with a good reputation. (Proverbs 15:33,
Rth 2:14 And Boaz said unto her, At mealtime come thou hither, and eat of the
bread, and dip thy morsel in the vinegar. And she sat beside the reapers: and he
reached her parched corn, and she did eat, and was sufficed, and left.
Vinegar = Poor mans wine. Vinegar, robb of fruits, etc., are used for this
purpose in the East to the present day; they dip the bread and hand together.
Note: And left: She had some left over that she was saving for Naomi. (Ruth was
always thinking of Naomi to take care of her). "She was just a good person."
Kind of a gal we would all like as a friend. (A real role model for women of
Rth 2:15 And when she was risen up to glean, Boaz commanded his young men,
saying, Let her glean even among the sheaves, and reproach her not:
Glean: The word glean comes from
the French glaner
to gather ears or grains of corn. This was formerly a general custom in England
and Ireland. The poor went into the fields, and collected the straggling ears of
corn after the reapers; and it was long supposed that this was their right, and
that the law recognized it; but although it has been an old custom, it is now
settled by a solemn judgment of the Court of Common Pleas, that a right to glean
in the harvest field cannot be claimed by any person at common law. Any person
may permit or prevent it on his own grounds. By the Irish Acts, 25; Henry VIII.
c. 1, and 28; Henry VIII. c. 24, gleaning and leasing are so restricted as to be
in fact prohibited in that part of the United Kingdom.
Rth 2:16 And let fall also some of the handfuls of purpose for her,
and leave them, that she may glean them, and rebuke her not.
Boaz was really looking out for Ruth and was making things
a little easier for her. Not only that, but he was showing compassion towards
others. (Psalm 112:9, Proverbs 19:17, 1 John 3:18).
Rth 2:17 So she gleaned in the field until even, and beat out that she had
gleaned: and it was about an ephah of barley.
At the end
of the day she had a bushel of grain. Ruth was a hard worker and looking out for
others. Not just herself. (Proverbs 31:27).
Rth 2:18 And she took it up, and went into the city: and her mother in
law saw what she had gleaned: and she brought forth, and gave to her that she
had reserved after she was sufficed.
Besides the bushel of
grain she collected, she saved some of the roasted grain she had for lunch for
Rth 2:19 And her mother in law said unto her, Where hast thou gleaned to day?
and where wroughtest thou? blessed be he that did take knowledge of thee. And
she shewed her mother in law with whom she had wrought, and said, The man's name
with whom I wrought to day is Boaz. Naomi knew that
someone was very kind to Ruth by what she brought back, and asked her about it.
Ruth tells Naomi that the name of the man was Boaz.
Rth 2:20 And Naomi said unto her daughter in law, Blessed be he of the
LORD, who hath not left off his kindness to the living and to the dead. And
Naomi said unto her, The man is near of kin unto us, one of our next
kinsmen. Naomi tells Ruth that the man was showing
kindness to us as well as your dead husband because he is one of our relatives.
(One of our closest kinsmen).
Rth 2:21 And Ruth the Moabitess said, He said unto me also, Thou shalt keep
fast by my young men, until they have ended all my harvest.
He even told me to come back till the harvest is complete. (God
always provides for His own).
Rth 2:22 And Naomi said unto Ruth her daughter in law, It is good, my
daughter, that thou go out with his maidens, that they meet thee not in any
other field. Naomi tells Ruth that this is good and to
remain with his young women through the whole harvest and she would be safe
Rth 2:23 So she kept fast by the maidens of Boaz to glean unto the end of
barley harvest and of wheat harvest; and dwelt with her mother in law.
Ruth stayed and worked right through the summer for both the barley and wheat
harvest. She continued to stay with Naomi even when things are good. (This took
place near the feast of Pentecost. This is why this book is read at the feast).
Rth 3:1 Then Naomi her mother in law said unto her, My daughter, shall I not
seek rest for thee, that it may be well with thee? Naomi
was looking out for Ruth and wanted to find her a good home and get her married.
Rth 3:2 And now is not Boaz of our kindred, with whose maidens thou
wast? Behold, he winnoweth barley to night in the threshingfloor.
Naomi is going
to get a little help from the kinsman redeemer. (Maybe take a little advantage
of him). He winniweth: It is
probable that the winnowing of grain was effected by taking up a portion of the
corn in a sieve, and letting it down slowly in the wind; thus the grain would,
by its own weight, fall in one place, while the chaff, etc., would be carried a
distance by the wind. It is said here that this was done at night; probably what
was threshed out in the day was winnowed in the evening, when the sea breeze set
in, which was common in Palestine.
Rth 3:3 Wash thyself therefore, and anoint thee, and put thy raiment upon
thee, and get thee down to the floor: but make not thyself known unto the
man, until he shall have done eating and drinking. Get all
cleaned up and looking good, then go to the threshing floor. However, don't let
Boaz see you until he has eaten and had a few drinks. (He will be a little more
Rth 3:4 And it shall be, when he lieth down, that thou shalt mark the place
where he shall lie, and thou shalt go in, and uncover his feet, and lay thee
down; and he will tell thee what thou shalt do. Ruth
wanted to marry Boaz.
Rth 3:5 And she said unto her, All that thou sayest unto me I will do.
Ruth was very
obedient to her mother-in-law Naomi.
Rth 3:6 And she went down unto the floor, and did according to all that her
mother in law bade her. Ruth did what Naomi instructed her
Rth 3:7 And when Boaz had eaten and drunk, and his heart was merry, he went
to lie down at the end of the heap of corn: and she came softly, and uncovered
his feet, and laid her down.
After Boaz was in good spirits, he fell asleep. Ruth uncovered his feet and she
is going to lay down next to him. Why uncover his feet? Ruth was not seducing
him, she was uncovering his feet so he would wake up from the cold. She wants to
make a statement that she is interested. (Kind of like flirting).
Rth 3:8 And it came to pass at midnight, that the man was afraid, and turned
himself: and, behold, a woman lay at his feet. When Boaz
woke up, he was surprised to find a woman lying at his feet. (I'll bet he was).
Rth 3:9 And he said, Who art thou? And she answered, I am Ruth
thine handmaid: spread therefore thy skirt over thine handmaid; for thou art
a near kinsman.
A near kinsman: Your right to redeem
me. (Christ Himself is our kinsman redeemer).
Spread therefore: Hebrew "spread thy wing;" the
emblem of protection; and a metaphor taken from the young of fowls, which run
under the wings of their mother from birds of prey. Even to the present day,
when a Jew marries a woman, he throws the skirts of his talith over her, to
signify that he has taken her under his protection. (Ezekiel 16:8).
Rth 3:10 And he said, Blessed be thou of the LORD, my daughter: for
thou hast shewed more kindness in the latter end than at the beginning, inasmuch
as thou followedst not young men, whether poor or rich.
Lord bless you my daughter. (Letting
the belief in God come first. Followed the law of kinsman redeemer).
Rth 3:11 And now, my daughter, fear not; I will do to thee all that thou
requirest: for all the city of my people doth know that thou art a
virtuous woman. Everyone knows that you are a worthy and
Rth 3:12 And now it is true that I am thy near kinsman: howbeit there
is a kinsman nearer than I.
I think even thou Boaz was interested in Ruth, he would follow the whole law
first. There is another relative that is ahead of Boaz in the line to redeem the
property and marry Ruth.
Rth 3:13 Tarry this night, and it shall be in the morning, that if he
will perform unto thee the part of a kinsman, well; let him do the kinsman's
part: but if he will not do the part of a kinsman to thee, then will I do the
part of a kinsman to thee, as the LORD liveth: lie down until the
Boaz wants to do things right.
He honored and
respected the girl, did not take advantage of her. Did it the right way by the
law. (Be sure you know who the true kinsman redeemer is). Know that the
anti-Christ also comes as the kinsman redeemer in the end times.
Rth 3:14 And she lay at his feet until the morning: and she rose up before
one could know another. And he said, Let it not be known that a woman came into
the floor. Boaz does not want rumors and gossip to start
about what is going on at the threshing floor.
Rth 3:15 Also he said, Bring the vail that thou hast upon thee, and
hold it. And when she held it, he measured six measures of barley, and
laid it on her: and she went into the city.
Gave her the gift of some barley
(about 60 pounds plus), and she did not go away empty.
Rth 3:16 And when she came to her mother in law, she said, Who art
thou, my daughter? And she told her all that the man had done to her.
Ruth gives Naomi the whole scoop of what went on. But what Naomi wants to really
"Are you still
single or married."
Rth 3:17 And she said, These six measures of barley gave he me; for he
said to me, Go not empty unto thy mother in law. How Boaz
loved Naomi. He wants her to know that he was interested in Ruth.
Rth 3:18 Then said she, Sit still, my daughter, until thou know how the
matter will fall: for the man will not be in rest, until he have finished the
thing this day.
He is taken with you and will care
for you. He will not rest till this matter is straightened out.
Rth 4:1 Then went Boaz up to the gate, and sat him down
there: and, behold, the kinsman of whom Boaz spake came by; unto whom he said,
Ho, such a one! turn aside, sit down here. And he turned aside, and sat down.
The gate: This is the place where open market would be set up, as well as the
center foe local government. (Where the judgment seat takes place). The kinsman:
The next of kin, who has the right of redemption. (Exodus 6:6, Ruth 3:12).
Rth 4:2 And he took ten men of the elders of the city,
and said, Sit ye down here. And they sat down. Everything done legal.
(Ten elders gathered as a witness if it was really important).
Rth 4:3 And he said unto the kinsman, Naomi, that is
come again out of the country of Moab, selleth a parcel of land, which was
our brother Elimelech's: (A parcel of the field).
Rth 4:4 And I thought to advertise thee, saying, Buy
it before the inhabitants, and before the elders of my people. If thou wilt
redeem it, redeem it: but if thou wilt not redeem it, then
tell me, that I may know: for there is none to redeem it beside
thee; and I am after thee. And he said, I will redeem it.
Looks like the next of kin is going to redeem the land. (Is Boaz out of luck
Rth 4:5 Then said Boaz, What day thou buyest the field
of the hand of Naomi, thou must buy it also of Ruth the Moabitess, the
wife of the dead, to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance.
The original manuscripts would read: "In the day thou purchasest the land from
the hand of Naomi, thou wilt also acquire Ruth, the Moabitess, the wife of the
dead," etc. This is Boaz's statement of the case to his kinsman, before the
people and elders. (i.e. more to it than just the purchase of the land). The
relative wants the field, but not the girl. Boaz don't care about the land, but
wants the girl.
Rth 4:6 And the kinsman said, I cannot redeem it
for myself, lest I mar mine own inheritance: redeem thou my right to thyself;
for I cannot redeem it. "I cannot redeem it, because I have
a wife already; and it is not fit for me to bring another into my house, lest
brawling and contention arise in it; and lest I hurt my own inheritance. Do thou
redeem it, for thou has no wife; which hinders me from redeeming it."
Rth 4:7 Now this was the manner in former time
in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning changing, for to confirm all
things; a man plucked off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour: and
this was a testimony in Israel. Plucked off his shoe: This was a
custom that grew outside the law. In the new law, Christ is our nearest kinsman.
(Galatians 3:13, 4:4-5, Psalm 111:9).
Rth 4:8 Therefore the kinsman said unto Boaz, Buy it
for thee. So he drew off his shoe. It's yours Boaz, "You buy the land."
Rth 4:9 And Boaz said unto the elders, and unto
all the people, Ye are witnesses this day, that I have bought all that
was Elimelech's, and all that was Chilion's and Mahlon's, of the hand
of Naomi. I get it all (in
front of all the witnesses), being the kinsman redeemer.
Rth 4:10 Moreover Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of
Mahlon, have I purchased to be my wife, to raise up the name of the dead upon
his inheritance, that the name of the dead be not cut off from among his
brethren, and from the gate of his place: ye are witnesses this day.
Boaz acquired the land and Ruth as his wife. (Boaz did it legal and the right
Rth 4:11 And all the people that were in the
gate, and the elders, said, We are witnesses. The LORD make the woman
that is come into thine house like Rachel and like Leah, which two did build the
house of Israel: and do thou worthily in Ephratah, and be famous in Bethlehem:
Rachel and Leah (the two wives of
Jacob), were the mothers of the twelve tribes. Rahab was the mother of Boaz.
However, she was not a harlot like many want you to believe. Rahab was in the
business to make fine linen. (Joshua 2:1-7).
Rth 4:12 And let thy house be like the house of Pharez,
whom Tamar bare unto Judah, of the seed which the LORD shall give thee of this
young woman. Tamar was
destined by God to be in the genealogy of Christ. Tamar played the harlot, she
was not a harlot. (God is in control).
Rth 4:13 So Boaz took Ruth, and she was his wife: and
when he went in unto her, the LORD gave her conception, and she bare a son.
Boaz took Ruth into his home and she became his wife. The Lord enabled her to
become pregnant, and she gave birth to a son. (This would be in the second
jubilee year, 1325-1324).
Rth 4:14 And the women said unto Naomi, Blessed be
the LORD, which hath not left thee this day without a kinsman, that his name may
be famous in Israel. A redeemer in the family that would be famous in
Israel. (Obed was the father of
Jesse, who was the father of David).
Rth 4:15 And he shall be unto thee a restorer of thy
life, and a nourisher of thine old age: for thy daughter in law, which loveth
thee, which is better to thee than seven sons, hath born him. Obed, the
son of Naomi's daughter-in-law Ruth, who loves you and has been better to you
than ten sons.
Rth 4:16 And Naomi took the child, and laid it in her
bosom, and became nurse unto it.
Naomi took good care of the child.
(all arranged by God).
Rth 4:17 And the women her neighbours gave it a name,
saying, There is a son born to Naomi; and they called his name Obed: he is
the father of Jesse, the father of David. Again, Obed (meaning serving),
became the father of Jesse and the grandfather of David.
Rth 4:18 Now these are the generations of Pharez:
Pharez begat Hezron,
Rth 4:19 And Hezron begat Ram, and Ram begat Amminadab,
Rth 4:20 And Amminadab begat Nahshon, and Nahshon begat
Rth 4:21 And Salmon begat Boaz, and Boaz begat Obed,
Salmon married Rahab and was
the father of Boaz. Boaz was the father of Obed.
Rth 4:22 And Obed begat Jesse, and Jesse begat David.
Obed was the father of Jesse, and Jesse was the father of David. (The
book of Ruth, a love story that gives us a peak into the lineage of David).
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